What would Freud say? Part 3
What would Karl Jung talk about your middle-aged crisis and buying the Red Ferrari? As if Burres Skinner explained why you do not dig up from your phone? Would like to contact Erich Fromma for help in finding real love?
I look into the phone every few minutes. Why i can’t focus?
In the XXI century, we are overloaded with information, and therefore the ability to selectively pay attention to one cases in contrast to another critical. Whether we are sensible creatures with you, our attention would focus on the information streams that are most useful for the actual task, but for some reason – it does not matter what this task is – we are staring into our smartphones. Why they attract so?
Everyone knows what attention is, but no one understands that it is. If you do not go into details, attention allows us to focus on some incentive (attractive person in the bar) to the detriment of others (people in the bar, the bar itself or a drink in hand). This process includes selectivity, but psychologists are still trying to figure it out. We think about what is the object for us, and then pay him attention? Or something attracts our attention due to the power of the signal (for example, loud sound) and then passes the cognitive processing and comprehends?
Back in the 1950s, psychologists Donald Broadbent and Colin Cherry argued that it was primary. Broadbent argued that the physical characteristics are the first to pass the system of filtering our psyche, and Cherry insisted that the meaning is more important. He pointed out that we are always, even among the cacophony of votes, hearing if they are called by name, and called it (rather elegant) "The effect of a cocktail party".
Anne Trisman made a maneuver who would admire Freud: she suggested that through the brain processing system all incoming information from the senses is being passed – at an unconscious level. From this "automatic stream" certain objects (for example, your name) can attract your attention.
Recent studies in which few cocktails appear, but many brain visualizations show that attention is a dynamic sensory system. During the processing of information, our attention – at any particular point – strengthens some flow of information ("winner") and swells the rest ("losers"). The process involves many parts of the brain and depends on two factors: your goal (friend a friend in a red dress – and all other colors are ignored) and the forces of incoming stimuli (broken glass, which distracts attention from everything else).
Our goals depend on the cognitive processing "top down", so if you want to drink, then heading to me, notice the bottle of water on my table. Such attention Endogenous, That is, it occurs within you. If you turn about the urn in the corridor and hurt your leg, your attention will be occupied by touch processing "bottom up" coming from environment. It’s external or exogenous, process.
The system has some shortcomings: the rigid selectivity of the process means that we miss something, especially if we get into the situation when information is too much – in time or space (when it is served too fast). We can also fall a victim of "blindness to change", that is, we do not notice the changes that occur outside our basic interest. For example, if you look like Julia Roberts and Richard Gir breakfast in the film "Pretty Woman", you may not notice how her croissant mysteriously turns into pancakes. We miss the details in the geographical space as well as in time. We all worried about it and know that such "punctures" are possible.
The problem with the smartphones is that in a convenient gadget we drag on the guidelines of the programs that for a lot of fun launch in our brain the production of exciting substances in our brain. At the exogenous level, smartphones constantly generate a noise that whispers: "You have a message" or "Video from yesterday’s party!". These external incentives are extremely attractive.
In addition, you may have strong endo genes: "She wrote to me? Then the offer for work has not yet come? Someone liked my photo? Someone answered me in snapchat?"And considering our tendency to miss the detail until the attention wanders somewhere else," didn’t you have happened that I missed?".
Let’s say you get a message or photo. This activates the novelty centers in the brain, and you experience the "remuneration" in the form of endogenous opioids, which instantly give the feeling of bliss. Because of this, it becomes much more difficult to pay attention to an important business meeting on which you are actually present. If you answer the message / photo / video with funny losers, you get a new dose of dopamine also for it is a cute "achievement". And perhaps you will be overwhelmed while you think how cool to feel connections with others (jackpot!).
Smartphones supply random remuneration, not guaranteed.
Father behavioral science b. F. Skinner showed that there is nothing seductive in this "variable reinforcement". Skinner placed animals into a cage with a lever that could be pressed. First, when the animals did it, the food appeared, and when they were found, stopped harming on the levers. Then the food did not appear for quite a long time, and the animals also threw the case. But when the food was delivered by chance, when pressing the lever, the animals continued to put pressure on it. (There is a message? Yes! There is a message? No. There is a message? There is?).
It is curious that smartphones can even rely on the power of "hidden attention", described in 1894 by Helmholz gelmagol. He showed that when the look was fixed at one point (for example, on a notebook lying in front of you), visual attention can be directed toward "hidden" – without translation. Holding the phone in the peripheral view zone, we can follow this "box with surprises" constantly.
Is there a problem?
Unfortunately, there is. Even a few. Firstly, that’s how we durim yourself, as if we are engaged in several cases at once. We, people, have a limited amount of attention, and, if we split it into two or more tasks, it is distributed either very superficially (so that we do not notice much in tasks), or uneven.
Professor Glen Wilson discovered that multitasking, for example, an attempt to concentrate, when you know that some letter is waiting for reading, leads to the best cognitive losses than smoking marijuana. In addition, dopamine affects Pruting kernel. Scientists conducted experiments on rats, giving them the opportunity to harm on the lever, which is why the electrical signal came into this part of the brain directly, imitating the impact of dopamine. Rats like it that they were constantly pressed on the lever, forgetting about food, sleep and sex. They just stood and taped him until they died from exhaustion.
In 2016, the Government of the New South Wales in Australia announced the tests of new traffic lights that attract the attention of pedestrians who are not moving the street in time. They do not hear the beeps of cars, the roar of engines, do not notice the huge signs and edges of the borders under their feet. The whole flow of transport can not compete with the phone, and the connection with the reality of these people is lost.