What would Freud say? Part 4
What would Karl Jung talk about your middle-aged crisis and buying the Red Ferrari? As if Burres Skinner explained why you do not dig up from your phone? Would like to contact Erich Fromma for help in finding real love?
Usually I am so brought up … Where this rage on the road? You lead the car on a two-way road, chatting with my husband who sits nearby, and suddenly the car suits you, forcing you to hit the brakes. You and Husband throws back and forth, burning pain from the old injury pierces the neck, and the car behind almost flies to you in the bumper. A few seconds later you see how the offender turns to the cafe. As you do?
Perhaps we all would like to react to rationally: "I’ll go for a couple of minutes to calm down, and then I will continue the trip". Unfortunately, psychologists again and again prove that we are not so far left in an evolutionary plan, as we think, and sometimes we react, cycling the brain functions, common with other mammals, and not the highest cognitive, affordable person.
The courts are littered with the affairs of people who are friends and relatives describe how "always so soft and calm!"But they hit other drivers with endless rage.
"Is it really like a man who will send three letters of the driver, will carry a knife with him to pushing the tire, plot in the face of the interlocutor during the dispute or twice the man pushes?"- the lawyer will ask. "Of course, no," – will answer close. But for some reason they are accused of these violations. So what happens?
Road rage involves that type of aggression that occurs instantly and uncontrollably, even among commonly calm people. "Ordinary" aggression can be explained by the features, children’s experience, environmental influences and even Epiesenetic (combining nature and education), but something else happens here. The study of the psychologist Yaac Pankseppa shows that the answer should be sought deep in the human brain – at the subcortex level, where the structures and systems that relate us to other mammals.
We constantly, without resorting to the awareness, process information about the world around, which gives us a basic assessment of danger and security – what can approach, and what is better to avoid. Panksepp calls these processes "Evolutionary ancient, emotional-affective", they encourage us to act, without thinking, while younger cognitive abilities (which are localized in the new crust) help us first think, and already do something.
One of our subcortex systems, common with other mammals, is a set of nervous networks that control the basic, genetically coded emotional and behavioral inconsistencies – in other words, a set of "instincts", which we have from birth. PankSepp believes that they can be viewed as a computer operating system, which is located in a constant storage device (ROM), while more complex training systems and thinking are more similar to RAM (RAM). The type of the brain system, similar to the ROM, is primary in relation to the RAM system: the same as in the computer, constant memory is necessary for basic functioning, and it is in it that PankSepp believes, our "emotions, passions and hunger" live. We love to pretend that closer to the angels than to other animals, and tend to deny the existence of "lower passions", but their voice is always heard in our activities.
Pankseppa experiments revealed seven basic instincts: search, anger, fear, lust, care, grief and game (it uses capital letters to distinguish the systems and the usual use of words). The search system encourage animals to explore the environment and search for objects necessary for survival, including parents and food. No animal need to teach it, and we also do not need to learn how to worry or express fear, anger, pain, pleasure or joy. Experiments have shown that these seven systems can be launched direct electrical stimulation into certain parts of the brain. When an anger system is stimulated, animals get the wool on end, they are hissing and growling, and send anger to any object surrounded, which is perceived as a threat.
Anger system is the key to understanding the sudden and inexplicable aggression. The anger is launched by events, the environment, but the emotion itself occurs, because certain types of incentives affect the chain of anger in the brain. Even the baby is easy to pour out: press his handles to the body for a few seconds, and the baby will annoy this restriction of freedom of action. This is a key trigger chain of anger, in addition to frustration, – because freedom of movement and achievement of the current goal is part of the search system. It seems that they are closely related: events that interfere with the search system can activate the wrath chain. Panksepp asks: who did not worry a brief flash of anger caused by frustration when the machine for selling drinks and food takes money and does not give goods? If you are not hungry or you still have money, you may be able to take advantage of the mental abilities of the highest brain (new bark) and tell yourself that the situation can be resolved. But, if you are hungry, the little things are no longer, you are hot and really want to drink, and besides, you are late for an important meeting, and in this moment The machine gives a failure, anger system starts so hard that the cognitive, rational system completely fails.
Fast and slow thinking
This point of view to some extent coincides with the concept of "fast and slow thinking" by Daniel Kaneman. Caneman believes that we have access to two different types of thinking, which he calls System 1 and System 2.
Alas, the high-speed system 1 "is looking for connections" – structures and meanings and makes hasty conclusions ("He cut me on purpose!"). System 2 slower, it is able to realize and put
Doubt on these conclusions. This system is responsible for self-control, but, as Kaneman notes, the system 2 is often lazy and easily tired (in scientific it is called "exhaustion of the ego"). In such conditions, it is only glad to go about (often in vain) at the conclusions to which system came 1. So yes, the guy cut me on purpose, she agrees. Self-control is sent to the cat under the tail, and you follow the system 1. Moreover, since the system 1 does not tolerate the slightest uncertainty, you not only feel that he cut you on purpose, you know this is.
PankSePP recognizes the influence of the highest cognitive mind on emotions that are responsible for the primary processing of informent, as well as Kaneman believes that sometimes System 2 affects the system 1. However, Panksepp indicates that this is a bilateral process: Thoughts may soften feelings, but they are the carriers of symbolic ideas, and the symbols are able to enhance (for example, the symbolic gesture "show a fist").
This means that animals have a threat to survival launch primary processes, but a person has symbolic gestures and words can also cause them. Combine a relevant threat of survival with a territorial threat (the car cuts you on the road) and join here a threat to a close person (husband or child is going with you), as well as the ancient symbolic gesture "raised middle finger", and together with the internal stress enhancement factors: fatigue, Hunger or low blood sugar (system 2 need glucose!) – Bach! Nervous network of anger suddenly starts at full power.
So what can I do?
Neurogenic Douglas Fields, a road anger specialist, says that you need to learn to recognize the erroneous triggering of the trigger – you are not in the life-threatening situation, and there is no need to "erase the threat from the face of the earth", despite such convincing sensations that everything is so. If you feel that stresses accumulate, take measures to reduce them before you work the trigger. Eat, sleep, relax, turn on calm music.
If you notice the increase in the physiological characteristics of anger (rapid heartbeat, spilled teeth), use a more subtle cognitive system 2 to resist the beliefs that pour out of an unconsciously active system 1. Whatever you do, stop. Realize the situation in which you stay. For most of us it is not easy, but this can be learn through practices attentive.
In the California San Quentin prison, a specialized care course is held, in which prisoners are taught to notice "moment of inevitable danger" when anger of Watto will fall into rage and violence. All participants are serving life sentences, and, passing the program to "turn the rage of power", they tend to develop tracking skills and management of strong impulses, which led them to a crime.
The founder of the Jacca Verduen program argues that three events occur at the time of an inevitable danger: everything is accelerated, everything is intensified, and then the moment of regret. The skill of recognizing the moment of inevitable danger helps dispel the road rage, as well as any other.