What you need to know about happiness so as not to be afraid of him

What you need to know about happiness so as not to be afraid of him?

We can be happy, and no one can ban us. Besides us themselves. Because of fear, before happiness, we create life difficulties, turn away from others and escape at the last moment. Do I need to chase happy? We talked about this with representatives of different science areas.

Most ours consider themselves happy: this is stated by 85% of surveys participants. But openly talk about happiness is still not accepted. It seems that the "happy person" – the title to earn and confirm constantly. Earn a lot, and not how much you need to have an exemplary family and good work.

But studies show that happiness does not boil down to the "Best Life". It looks like a bizarre picture that looks different for everyone. And yet – is it possible to "measure" happiness? What the representatives of different science regions speak about it?

Neurobiology: Neuron Balm

From the point of view of neurobiology of emotions – no more than interpretation of the brain of the signals that he receives. When we catch admiring views on themselves, we wait for the order in the restaurant, first see the face of your child, our nervous cells exchange signals through hormones-neurotransmitters. Dopamine, for example, is responsible for anticipation of pleasure from food. When love is painting us – oxytocin is valid. And when we are praised, we bathe in serotonin.

Emotions act so much because they provide survival and continuation of the kind. They went to us from wild ancestors who were more important to quickly navigate than reflecting.

"Elephant does not need to" try "to remember the signs of terrain, where water is, – writes Loretta Breigning, author of the book" Hormones of happiness ". – Dopamine automatically creates a neural path in his brain. The next time he sees something similar to the spring, the impulses will go along the neural chain and will cause a tide of "Hormon of Happiness".

But our life is more complicated than the elephant, so, in addition to the fast "unconscious", we also have a "conscious" part. She is responsible for plans, goals and behavior in difficult situations. The problem is that the two "accounting" of the brain can not always agree among themselves.

For example, we consciously want to look good and for the sake of this, we refuse the calorie food and go to the gym. But as soon as they feel hunger, a mammal wakes up in us that does not understand our goals. He is interested in one thing: to get nutrients and stock them. To resist the temptation, you have to strain the power of the will and feed yourself to the promises of the future happy life in a slim body.

"The paradox is in which: to gain conscious happiness, we need to understand the unconscious language of the brain, – explains Loretta Broining. – and perhaps to deceive it ".

Economy: dancing on the treadmill

The brain of each of us is unique, therefore, and the images of happiness in each. But what provides a happy life in general? For a long time, economists believed that happiness means maximum satisfaction of needs. It can be measured objectively – in the money on the bank account, quality of products and services.

Indeed, until some moment we are happier when we rich. However, in 2010, the laureates of the Nobel Prize in Economics Daniel Kaneman and Angus Diton proved that after reaching the "optimal level" of income, the growth of happiness stops.

Moreover, the effect of the "treadmill" – the standard of living, which recently seemed to us the limit of dreams, after a week, month or year ceases to satisfy. I want something more, and at this desire, advertising is successfully parasitis. The pursuit of sensations becomes an end in itself, but new models of gadgets and more expensive entertainment give only the opportunity to "stay in the saddle", to take concern.

Recently, the Canadian, American and British economists tried to solve this problem with joint efforts. In 2011, they released an article "If money does not make you happy, perhaps you spend their wrong". Their recipe comes down to discipline itself:

1. Pay for "impressions", not goods;

2. Consume pleasure "small portions", but often;

3. It is not more invested in the status of status, but what provides a stable "good life" – medicine, education, living conditions.

Genes decide for us?

Looks like one of us from birth is more predisposed to happiness than others. The first confirmation of this almost twenty years ago found a psychologist David Licken from the University of Minnesota. He was interested in twins separated at birth.

According to his research, at one-time twins, that is, those who have a genetic set completely coincides, the level of satisfaction with life remained similar, even if they grew in different environments. In other words, each of us lives with a smile on the face, but some it is wider.

Culturalology: Life according to the rules

The experience of happiness is associated with the state of society and cultural norms – people in different countries are happy as much as they "allow" dominant installations. For example, in China, personal well-being depends on the well-being of the collective: to be happy alone ashamed, and wealth and success are less than the concern for others.

In the US, on the contrary, happiness seems to be the result of human achievements, and a happy person must be successful. During World War II, in Japan, thousands of young people were happy to become Kamikadze and bring the glory of the Motherland, although they understood that they would have to become killers and die themselves. Interestingly, the cohesion of society is important for happiness its members no less than material well-being.

"Many Latin American countries are almost as happy as Scandinavian, although they are much poorer, – comments on sociologist Eduard Ponarin. – But they have a "warm" culture, where the value of communication is high, people are religious and tend to experience the victories of the country as their own ". But the collapse of the norms and the change of values ​​can be a personal tragedy.

So the case was in Russia in the early 1990s. "After the collapse of the Union, the level of happiness fell sharply, – continues Eduard Ponarin. – The system of worldview collapsed, guidelines disappeared, the material well-being. As the situation straightened, the level of happiness grew. Grew pride for the country. And now, although income decreased, judging by surveys, the ours are happy. ".

Psychology: true formula

And yet in many ways our happiness depends on what we do with your life. American psychologists Sonya Lubomirski and Ken Sheldon summarized data from different sciences and concluded that only 10% of happiness falls on external circumstances – a place where we live, the wealth of the family, the level of education.

What you need to know about happiness so as not to be afraid of him

Exactly half the ability to be happy depends on the factors specified from the birth – brain structure, personality warehouse, temperament. But for the remaining 40%, happiness depends on ourselves – from what people we communicate, what classes choose which way of life we ​​are conducting. What exactly can we do to become happier?

In the late 1990s, there was a whole direction of positive psychology, supporters of which were set to "tame" happiness. Or at least accurately calculate its components. In one of his last works, Martin Seligman, one of the founders of this direction, proposed the formula that he called Perma on the first letters of the components of her English words.

In his opinion, in the life of everyone there should be positive emotions, involvement in some important thing for him, relationships with significant people, the experience of the meaning and purpose of its existence: "Who am I? For what I live?"And personal achievements.

Angedonia: without the right to happiness

Terry Bradshow, one of the most successful players in American football, admitted that even after his main victories did not feel joys and pleasures. Inability to enjoy psychologists and psychiatrists called Jedonia. This condition usually arises due to a failure to develop a neurotransmitter of dopamine, which is responsible for pleasant sensations and thoughts.

Angedonia may be a consequence of mental disorders, such as depression, schizophrenia, post-traumatic stress disorder. To cope with it, medications are needed, which release dopamine.

Philosophy: false goal?

From the point of view of philosophy, which starts from ancient Greek Stoics, we do not necessarily seek fortunately to come to him. Moreover, the desire itself be happy or "happiness" takes us aside.

"All people want to live happily, but they are vaguely imagine, what is a happy life," – wrote Seneca more than two thousand years ago. He believed that the man "leaves happiness, the farther, the more he is interested in the pursuit of him: when the path leads in the opposite direction, the hasty is the reason for even more removal from the final item".

The same approach was adhered to the Austrian psychotherapist Viktor Flank, who passed through the concentration camp. He considered the desire to happily a less worthy target than the search for the meaning and the conversion of the world. According to the thought of Frankl, following the desires, we go on a light path – we avoid what we can harm, regret the power and stop if the goal threatens peace of mind.

"Happiness is like a butterfly," he wrote. – The more you catch it, the more it slips away. But if you postpone your attention to other things, it will come and quietly sit on your shoulder ".

Better than yesterday

You probably noticed this effect: the present seems more boring and gray compared to how we imagine the future. Such an innocent self-exchanger allows us to stay as directed to the future, writes the philosopher Jennifer Hecht in the book "Myth of Happiness". Dissatisfaction with the present and dreams of the future support our motivation to move forward. And warm memories of the past convince us that the sensations we are looking for, we are available, we have already experienced them.

If we were satisfied with the existing position of affairs, it could completely undermine our will act, achieve and end so that. "Those of our ancestors who were quite satisfied with everyone, there were surpasses quickly in everything," concludes a philosopher.

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